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AFC (antral follicle count)

An ultrasound examination of the ovaries used to estimate the ovarian reserve in the patient according to the number of immature follicles.

AID (arteficial insemination by donor)

Intrauterine insemination using donor sperm.

AMH (anti-Müllerian hormone)

A hormone whose value determines the ovarian reserve - "the quantity of eggs in the ovary".

Assisted hatching (AH)

The oocyte, later the embryo, is surrounded by a layer called zona pellucida. The embryo must leave this layer in order to attach to the uterus. This process is called hatching. Sometimes, the layer is too thick or stiff and thus the embryo cannot leave it. It is supposed that, in some cases, this might be the reason for infertility. This condition can be improved by an embryologist who creates a small opening in the layer so that the embryo can leave the layer easily.


The result of semen analysis where the percentage of motile sperm is below standard lower limit, i.e. below 40%.


It is a medical condition when the ejaculate contains no sperm.


Usually a 5-day old embryo, when some cells already differentiate to form a placenta (trophoblast) and some cells form a fetus (embryoblast).

Clinical pregnancy

It is a pregnancy visible in the uterus by ultrasound. Biochemical pregnancy is the phase of pregnancy when there is a positive finding of HCG hormone either in blood or urine in the pregnancy test.

Corpus luteum

A structure on the ovary formed by remaining cells of the follicle after ovulation. It is hormonally active and it produces oestrogens and mainly progesterone preparing the endometrium to accept the embryo and ensuring its successful development until this function is taken over by the placenta in about the 12th week of pregnancy.


A person who gives sperm, eggs or embryos.


A germ resulting from the fertilization of the egg by the sperm.


It is a new culture medium, which contains an important cytokine (GM-CSF) that creates an ideal environment for proper embryonal division and development of embryos. It is used to culture embryos within 72 hours. It is suitable for patients with recurrent reproductive failure and for patients with a history of recurrent miscarriage.


This medium is specially developed so that there is a perfect communication between the endometrium and embryo after embryotransfer. The medium is enriched in particular with hyaluronan, thereby creating a suitable environment for embryo implantation. EmbryoGlue is particularly suitable for women over 35 years.

Embryotransfer (ET)

It is transcervical placement of embryos into the uterus by a thin catheter.


A disease when endometrial cells implant outside the uterine cavity. The cause of the disease is not entirely clear. These cells may be found on the ovary and form typical endometroid cysts which are sometimes associated with infertility. If found elsewhere in the pelvis, they may cause pain or create adhesions that restrict fallopian tube patency.


A mucous membrane: it is a lining of the uterine cavity whose quality changes during a menstrual cycle. In certain phase of the cycle it can receive an embryo so that it can further develop.

ERA (endometrial receptivity array)

A test designed to show whether the endometrium can receive the embryo on the day of embryotransfer. If not, it can determine when to perform embryotransfer, i.e. whether sooner or later. It is made after repeated failure in assisted reproduction.

Extended embryo culture

Culturing embryos in the laboratory for longer than 48 hours, but at a maximum of 144 hours. The extended embryo culture is used to select the most suitable embryos for embryotransfer. If embryos are cultured for more than 48 hours, the quality of their development and their viability can be better assessed.

Fertile days

It is a time period in the female menstrual cycle when it is possible to conceive. It is in a period of ovulation, with a maximum span of up to 7 days before ovulation and 3 days after ovulation. If the cycle is 28 days, then the ovulation comes on the 14th day of the cycle. If the cycle is shorter, the ovulation occurs earlier, e.g. in a 25-day cycle it is on the 11th day of the cycle. If the cycle is longer, the ovulation occurs later e.g. in a 35-day cycle it is on the 21th day of the cycle.


A small sac in the ovary filled with fluid where the egg develops. Its size in resting state is up to 8 mm. It gradually grows to a diameter of 18-24 mm when it bursts and the egg is released (see Ovulation).


Measurement of the follicle size by ultrasound. It is performed repeatedly over several days to monitor the follicular growth and to predict or evidence ovulation.

Freezing (cryopreservation)

Sperms, eggs and embryos can be freezed in liquid nitrogen theoretically for unlimited period of time. In this state, no processes are ongoing in the cells, everything stops and the activity renews after thawing.

Frozenembryotransfer (FET)

Transfer of frozen-thawed embryos into the uterus.

Genetic testing

Genetic testing is based on the interview of both partners with a clinical counsellor. Nowadays, the importance of genetic tests is often overestimated. If the woman has a regular menstrual cycle with ovulation and the man has normal results of semen analysis, the probability of finding a genetic abnormality is the same as in the general population.

GTH (gonadotrophic hormones)

Hormones that are naturally produced in the pituitary gland (an endocrine gland in the brain) and regulate ovarian function. They are also produced as medication which can "force" the ovary to grow more than one follicle. We call the process “controlled hormonal stimulation”. They are only in the form of injections.

Hormonal stimulation

The process which we start IVF treatment with. It takes place in the first half of the cycle for about 10-15 days. Using hormonal drugs, we stimulate ovarian activity so that more than one egg matures at the same time.

HyCoSy (hysterosalpingo contrast sonography)

A method to examine the patency of fallopian tubes. The principle of the method is the insertion of a contrast solution into the uterus; ideally, this solution then penetrates into the fallopian tubes and abdominal cavity where it is absorbed. We monitor the process by ultrasound. This method is the most gentle of the possible examinations. The patients describe their feelings during the examination as the same as during menstruation, which then fade away. If necessary, we perform this test in a short general anaesthesia.


A minor gynaecological performance when optical technology is inserted into the uterine cavity through the vagina and cervix to examine the shape of the uterine cavity and the quality of the endometrium and to see the mouth of the fallopian tubes. The method is used to detect polyps and other pathologies. Surgical hysteroscopy is called resectoscopy when some pathological formations can be removed from the uterus by using instruments. It can be combined with a biopsy of the endometrium or HyCoSy. This all is performed in our clinic.

ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection into the oocyte)

A type of fertilization when the embryologist selects a sperm according to its appearance and motility and inserts it directly into the egg.


Implantation of the embryo in the endometrium.

Implantation window

A short period of about 2 days when the endometrium is ready to receive an embryo for "implantation". It is 6-7 days after ovulation.

IUI (intrauterine insemination)

Cleaned sperms are inserted by a thin catheter directly into the uterine cavity.

IVF (in vitro fertilization)

Fertilization which takes place outside the body.


A minimally invasive surgical method of abdominal surgery when operations on the organs of the abdominal cavity or small pelvis are performed while using long thin instruments under the control of cameras. It is performed under general anaesthesia and requires brief hospitalization.

Low responder

A patient who is less responsive to hormonal stimulation in IVF process. These are usually patients with low ovarian reserve.

Menstrual cycle

The cycle begins on the first day of bleeding and ends on the first day of further bleeding. It is therefore calculated from the beginning to the beginning of menstruation. If bleeding comes by 10 o'clock in the morning (not just blood spotting), we count it as the first day of the cycle. However, if bleeding occurs after 10 o'clock in the morning, it is a zero day and the first day of the cycle is the following day.

MESA (microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration)

It is used in patients with obstructive azoospermia. It is a microsurgical aspiration of sperm from the epididymis.

Minimal stimulation IVF cycle

An IVF cycle when lower than usual amount of stimulation drugs is administered. Then we expect the growth of fewer follicles, sometimes only one.


A frequently occurring benign "tumor" in the uterus. It occurs in the muscle of the uterus (myometrium) where it creates defined "balls" that distort the uterus. According to whether they occur closer to the uterine cavity, in the middle of the myometrium or on the surface of the uterus, they are divided into submucosal, intramural and subserosal. They might be associated with the inability to conceive or recurrent miscarriage, but there might not be the connection. It depends on their size and location in the uterus. Sometimes they are removed, sometimes they are left there. There is already conservative treatment, too.

Natural IVF cycle

The IVF cycle where no hormonal drugs are administered to stimulate egg production.


Normal values of sperm analysis in all parameters.

OHSS (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome)

Excessive ovarian response to hormonal stimulation in IVF process. It is a set of symptoms, such as enlarged ovaries, lower abdominal pressure or pain, nausea, vomiting, reduced urination, etc.


Abnormal result of sperm analysis when the sperm concentration in the ejaculate is less than the standard lower limit, i.e. 15 mil./ml.


Egg. It is the biggest cell in the human body with a diameter of 0.1 mm.

Oocyte puncture

Transvaginal aspiration of follicular fluid containing the eggs from the ovary to obtain the eggs for IVF process to fertilize them in the laboratory. It is performed in short general anaesthesia through a thin needle.

Ovarian reserve

In simple terms, it is a "number of eggs in the ovary". Women have the highest values of ovarian reserve after puberty and these values decrease with growing age. The value of ovarian reserve as well as the rate of its decline is very individual. The ovarian reserve is estimated from the level of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) or rather level of AMH (anti-Müllerian hormone), but also by ultrasound ovarian examination – AFC (antral follicle count).


A female reproductive organ in a lesser pelvis which produces oocytes and is hormonally active.


The burst of a growing follicle and the release of an egg from a follicle in the ovary.

PGD/PGS (preimplantation genetic diagnosis/preimplantation genetic screening)

A method in the IVF process where an embryo is genetically tested whether it is healthy. The number of some or all chromosomes can be tested in the embryo, i.e. whether any chromosomes are missing or present abundantly, to exclude the Down’s syndrome or testing for hereditary diseases where there is a real risk of inheriting the disease.

PICSI (preselected intracytoplasmic sperm injection)

It is a modified ICSI method where based on the functional assay a sperm is selected and then injected into the egg. The method is suitable for couples with recurrent poor quality of embryos or repeated failure. It can be used as soon as the first IVF cycle when the couple wants to maximize their treatment in that cycle. The PICSI method can not be used if a semen analysis shows significantly pathological results, with low sperm count or completely immotile sperm.


Also a „villus” or a „mucosal pouch”. In gynaecology, we can find endometrial polyps in the uterine cavity or cervix. If a woman who wants to conceive has a uterine polyp, it must be removed. Sometimes such a polyp acts like an IUD and thus prevents pregnancy. Histological examination of the polyp can exclude a possible malignant polyp which is, however, rare in women of reproductive age.

Reproductive period of a woman

A time period when the woman can become pregnant. This reproductive period may vary for each woman within several years. The female’s ability to conceive ends many years before the last menstrual bleeding in life. The female’s inability to conceive after the age of 40 is not seen as a disease, but a physiological process of reproductive aging.


A dilated fallopian tube with inflammation where both tubular ends stick together and the tube is filled with fluid. Such filled fallopian tube can be seen by ultrasound examination. Sometimes, we distinguish hydrosalphinx where the fallopian tube is filled for a long time, its walls are thinned and the inflammation is healed, and pyosalphinx which is an ongoing acute inflammation and the fallopian tube contains pus. In its acute phase, it is treated with antibiotics. Such fallopian tube is often irreversibly damaged and sometimes it is better to remove it.

Semen analysis (spermiogram)

Examination of the ejaculate (sperm), based on which male fertility is assessed. Several days of sexual abstinence are recommended before undergoing this examination.

Social freezing

Freezing of oocytes at the age when the woman is young and still has quality oocytes. For well known reasons, many women now decide to have a baby in their 40s. It is generally known that the ability to conceive decreases with age. In order to give the older woman a chance to have her biological child, the eggs freezed in her “reproductive youth” can be thawed and used in the IVF+ET programme. It is necessary to freeze eggs by the age of 35 for this method to be successful.

Sperm DNA fragmentation

A high standard test for testing the quality of sperm. The result is the percentage of sperm with damaged DNA in the sperm head. This test gives us more information about the quality of sperm that can be used to plan the next treatment procedure.


The abnormal test result of semen analysis when the ejaculate contains an increased percentage of sperms with abnormal shape. The standard is very liberal. We speak about teratospermia if the percentage is higher than 96%.

TESE (testicular sperm extraction)

A surgery that is performed under general anaesthesia in patients with azoospermia. The purpose is to obtain sperms directly from the male gonad. The testicle cover is cut open to obtain testicular seminiferous tubules and find sperms under the microscope. The sperm can be freezed or used directly for fertilization using the ICSI method. This surgery can be synchronized with the stimulation of the woman when TESE is performed on the day of the egg retrieval (OPU). At our clinic we perform both of these options. The TESE is performed on an outpatient basis and is not covered by public health insurance.

Time-lapse embryo monitoring system

A method allowing continuous monitoring of the embryo development under unchanging environmental conditions. Using this method, we have a complete overview of the development of each individual embryo. Based on the dynamics of differentiation and other parameters, an embryologist has the option to choose the best quality embryos for embryotransfer and decide which embryos are suitable for freezing. This method must be combined with ICSI/PICSI methods.


Fast freezing used for freezing the embryos and oocytes. This method is more expensive than previous slow freezing, but ensures better survival of embryos or oocytes after thawing. Embryos/oocytes can be freezed in liquid nitrogen theoretically for an unlimited period of time

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Where do you find us?

ProCrea Swiss IVF Center s.r.o.
Nádražní Str. 762/32
(entrance from Rozkošného Str. 1058/3)
150 00  Prague 5 - Smíchov

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Interview with Mirna Turcinovic, team manager of the coordinators


Four questions to our IVF team at the ProCrea Swiss IVF Center Prague This time with customer care manager Mirna Turcinovic "ProCrea Swiss IVF Center is a perfect mixture of a private, family clinic and advanced technologies avilable to couples who need medical support to pregnancy planning." 1) What does your working day mean to you? Adventure, tension, joy or mission? The role of our team (treatment coordinators) is to povide support to our patients in all phases of the treatment. It starts with first contact via e-mail or lasts until viable pregnancy is achieved. In our team we have only women who can relate to all female issues around infertility and provide help with not only treatment information but also empathy and understanding of what our patients are going through.  When we use the statement "I had a successful day", "I did well today", what can we imagine in that in your profession? A good day for us means a day when we received many positive pregnancy tests. For us it is biggest reward knowing we were able to help our couples on their journey to desired baby. It gives us huge energy wave and confirmation that what we do is important becasue we are able to make a difference in this world and bring joy to someone´s life. 2) How would you characterize the field of reproductive medicine. Importance, benefits for society today and in the near future? I believe that everyone, especially young women should be educated about their fertility. It is not a taboo topic, biology has its principles and many young women would benefit from understaning them. There is no reason to fear biologic clock or pressure to find a right partner at a certian time in life, there is vriety of options availble from diagnostics, fertility preservation, pregnancy planning etc. Medicine and technology have made huge progress and today we are able to help almost everyone who wishes to have a child. There are different sets of methods avilable and by creating individual treatment plans, everyone can learn about their options. As time when women become mothers has shifted from 20ies to 30ies and 40ies, many women and men will need help of reproductive medicine to achieve pregnancy. We should accept it as normal situation in 21st century and take the best from it. Everyone can manage their own fertility. 3) As an expert, what would you say to women who do not yet have a family and children? There is never a perfect timing. Many couples postpone parenthood until all conditions are met. Today in time of COVID, we face how unpredictable life is. And more then ever we understand how important family is as a basic unit of our society. Young women should learn about their fertility and their options from young age and not to wait for last minute to contact reporoductive medicine specialists. The earlier we start evaluating fertility, more options we will have to preserve it and make plan for future pregnancy. We would advise all women to contact our Info Center and learn about their options.  4) Simply and concisely: what makes ProCrea different and unique? ProCrea Swiss IVF Center is a perfect mixture of a private, family clinic and advanced technologies avilable to couples who need medical support to pregnancy planning. Many couples who come to us, complain that at the big centers they feel like a „number“ and that treatment is not indiviual enough. Our approach is opposite, we provide Individual plan for each patient and in a setting that is comfortable and does not scare the patient with its size. We support of Next Clinics (20 IVF clinics in our group) we are able to combine top knowledge and best practices from many European centers and deliver it locally in a private atmosphere.   Mirna Turcinovic, MSc Customer Care Manager v ProCrea Swiss IVF Center Prague  


COVID-19 operating information, 1.3. 2021


Dear clients, we would like to inform you and assure you that the current government measures of the Czech Republic do not have an impact on the treatment of our patients and do not limit the operation of the clinic. Please only cooperate by following the procedures below: •    Fill out a COVID-19 consent form at the clinic reception.  •    Please wear a mask when entering the clinic. •    Your temperature will be checked upon entry.  •    If you are feeling unwell please call the clinic first, do not come to the clinic. •    If consultations are not possible in person, we can reschedule it or arrange it via Skype-Zoom to make sure we give  attention on time to your case. •    If you have been in close contact to a COVID positive person, please inform us and we will postpone your treatment    for two weeks.  •    Please attend your appointments alone or with your partner, with no extra company. •    We will continue to monitor new government regulations to provide the safest treatment environment for you and your  family. •    International patients, please contact clinic Coordinators at to receive latest travel updates and receive necessary travel documentation.  Stay healthy and safe and we look forward to planning your pregnancy at ProCrea.    


We help to bloossom new lives. We are an IVF clinic with an individual and sensitive approach.


We help to bloossom new lives. We are an IVF clinic with an individual and sensitive approach. Reproductive medicine has made greate progress in recent years and can help with most reproductive problems. Even in the Czech Republic, the treatments have already helped thousands of couples with their families. The peak of a woman’s fertility is reached at around age 20 and after age 25 fertility slowly starts to decrease.  More rapid decrease happens normally after the age 35 when embryo implantation rates decreases and women face higher chances of having a miscarriages. The reason are explained by genetic abnormalities in eggs which result in genetically abnormal embryos without potential to develop into healthy pregnancy.  Men are not facing this challenges as they produce new, young sperm every 60-70 days and are not so limited by reproductive age.  Our grandmothers and mothers were more in line with this biologic factors, but today as young women deal with education, career, financial independence and are waiting to align with right partner, motherhood is postponed to late 20-ies, to be exact: 29 years old which is Czech and European average to become mothers for the first time mothers. Getting further away from biology, many couples turn to reproductive medicine to help them plan parenthood. Our job is not just to treat, but also to educate our patients when to seek help, we recommend to contact the clinic right away if: •    You are 35 or younger and you’ve been trying to get pregnant for 1 year without success •    You are over age 35 and you’ve been trying for more than 6 months without success •    You’re over age 40 and you’d like to start a family Time factor plays important role and we encourage woman to continue trying naturally but also to learn about their fertility and make realistic plan with time frame how to plan pregnancy. Contacting a clinic is not a taboo and many couples are parents today to children born with the help of assisted preproduction. Clinic has Info Center ready to answer all your questions and organize your first visit to the clinic ProCrea Swiss IVF Center in Prague.  Contacts:  Phone: +420 257 212 516 – 518 E-mail:  


Happy New Year 2021



Christmas holidays non-working day


We would like to inform you that our clinic will be closed 24th – 27th December. In case of any questions, please contact us ahead. We wish you Happy Holidays! ProCrea Swiss IVF Center Prague


Your health and safety are our priorities


Clinic is operating daily in accordance with epidemiology instructions in Czech Republic. Your health and safety are our priorities.   If you are travelling from abroad, we offer: - Official clinic invitation to confirm that travel is of medical purpose - FREE COVID PCR test for travel purposes for our female patients as part of their IVF treatment packages Feel free to contact us for more information.


Client ranking

The most beautiful Christmas

The most beautiful Christmas

"We would like to thank you very much for our treasure Karolína. We are your clients and thanks to you, our little girl was born on December 20, 2020 and became our most beautiful Christmas gift. The little one was 48cm and 3210g and we are very grateful to you.” Family Ženatík


Beautiful "Thank you" from a happy, new mother

Even during COVID pandemic time babies are born, including via IVF treatments. We received this beautiful thank you message from a happy new mother.

"I wish you primarily good health, so you could handle this challenging times and continue with your work. You have helped us greatly and we will be forever grateful."

Thank you

Thank you

Dr. Šulc,

we would like to use this opportunity to thank you and your colleagues for the  care we received during our IVF treatment and following pregnancy from May 2019 until now.

We are especially grateful for your personal approach to our case, we felt cared after even when situation was not easy, we always knew we can turn to you for advice. We are aware that today it is unfortunatelly not a standard everywhere, so we value not only your medical help but also kind approach.



Finaly even me can boast with joyfull news. On 10th February 2020 was born gorgeous girl Michalka (3650 g, 51 cm). She arrived 10 days after predicted date of birth. We, happy parents, want to thank to the whole Gest team for the longwished happiness. Markéta and Lukáš



Finally can we show off our babyboy Michal. He was born on 24.12.2019, his weight was 2720g and was 48 cm long. Michal came into this world little bit earlier - at 37th week. 
Thanks a lot to the whole team - finally we have our little treasure. 
Happy parents Jaroslava and Luboš 



We would like to thank the whole GEST team for the birth of our babygirl Zuzanka. She was born on 13. 7. 2018. Her weight was just 1120g - she was early born (28+6 week). She became a healthy, beautifull girl.
Grretings and thanks a lot again. 
Milena Wágnerová  



ProCrea Swiss IVF Center s.r.o.
Nádražní Str. 762/32
(entrance from Rozkošného Str. 1058/3)
150 00 Praha 5 - Smíchov

Surgery hours:

Monday 8:00 - 16:30
Tuesday 8:00 - 19:00
Wednesday 8:00 - 19:00
Thursday 8:00 - 16:30
Friday 8:00 - 16:30
Saturday Emergency only


Phone.: +420 257 212 516 - 518
Mobile: +420 602 328 346
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