Here is a general description of infertility treatment which may vary in individual cases.
Infertility disorders in males
The treatment of low sperm quality is often difficult. Andrological examination often does not reveal the cause of male infertility and, if so, it may not always be effective. However, we still recommend this examination at least to exclude serious pathology of the male genitalia where low sperm quality may be the first symptom. In addition to drugs, the vitamins and trace elements that act as antioxidants or are directly involved in metabolic processes in sperm may particularly help in case of impaired fertility. The adjustment of lifestyle, i.e. the elimination of stress, excessive smoking or alcohol consumption certainly has a positive effect. Consistent treatment of infections is also important.
For successful sperm development, the male genitalia - testicles - need cooler than body temperature. Everything that heats the testicles, such as tight clothing, can threaten sperm production. For men it is important to wear loose clothing, not to spend a lot of time sitting in the car, not to visit saunas very often, etc. Sometimes, the varicocele, i.e. the enlargement of venous plexus, which can also cause excessive heating of the germinal epithelium of the testicles, is found in the genital area. Varicocele can be surgically removed.
The best results in male infertility treatment, however, are unambiguously reached using the methods of assisted reproduction (IVF-ICSI). Even a minimum amount of sperms is sufficient when using the ICSI method where the sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm of the egg. This method opens up the possibility of having own child even to the severely infertile male. If there is no sperm in the ejaculate (azoospermia), we can perform surgical sperm retrieval from the epididymis (MESA) or directly from the testis (TESE). If there is sperm found in the sample, it can be used to fertilize eggs. If this fails, the option can be - provided that the treated couple agrees – to use donor sperm.
Infertility disorders in females
In women, we use the hormonal treatment either in the form of tablets or injections to induce ovulation as well as to eliminate various hormonal disorders, including thyroid disorders. The treatment of a vaginal infection may also have a positive impact. We monitor the quality of the endometrium and in case of atypical findings, such as a uterine polyp etc., it is necessary to plan its removal. If there is a myoma in the uterus, the decision whether to leave it or remove it depends on its size and location. In case of endometriosis we assess whether there is abdominal pain and the size and number of centres and we choose either conservative or surgical procedure accordingly. Blockage of both fallopian tubes must be solved via assisted reproduction. We choose this also in cases where less intensive treatment is possible, but not successful. Immunological cause of infertility is treated using small doses of corticosteroids and other drugs, but the best solution for this type of infertility is, again, assisted reproduction when we clean the egg and sperm from potentially harmful antibodies in the laboratory, and thus ensure fertilization and embryo development in immunologically clean environment. Antibodies mainly affect the mutual bonding of the sperm and egg. This problem is elegantly solved by ICSI method when the sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm of the egg. Assisted reproduction has also brought the possibility of using eggs from a donor. Donor eggs or sperm are used even in cases of some genetic disorders with the risk of their transmission onto the children. Rehabilitation also plays an important role in infertility treatment. The woman’s age is also taken into account in examination and treatment of infertility.