IVF + ET complications
The most common complication is the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).
Its severe form occurs in 3-5 % of cases. Each patient suffers from a certain degree of ovarian hyperstimulation after treatment when she feels a full and bloated abdomen, but this eventually fades away. A certain group of patients responds to hormonal stimulation with exaggerated response and develops the OHSS. If you have nausea, decreased urination and significant abdominal tension, it is a severe form of OHSS. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and young women are primarily at risk of developing the OHSS.
It is necessary to say that the OHSS is discomfort for the patient; for the transferred embryo(s), however, it is an ideal state and patients with OHSS get "pregnat" well. However, if pregnancy occurs after ET, the condition may temporarily worsen. To prevent this, we cannot do the embryo transfer (ET) in severe OHSS forms and we rather freeze all the embryos.
Because egg collection (OPU) is an invasive procedure, there is always a risk of complications, even if rare, that can unfortunately never be completely ruled out.
There is a risk of bleeding, vaginal and abdominal (internal) bleeding.
Bleeding from a vaginal puncture is easily treated with a vaginal tamponade, sometimes it is necessary to perform a suture in the vagina at the site of bleeding (approximately 0.5% of patients)
Abdominal bleeding: After egg collection, there is always some bleeding inside the ovary. The follicles from which the follicular fluid has been aspirated are filled with blood and part of the blood always escapes to the abdomen (small pelvis). This bleeding stops in 99.5% and such bleeding is absorbed very quickly. Unfortunately, sometimes this bleeding does not stop and the abdominal cavity is filled with blood. The patient then feels strong pressure in the lower abdomen with a distance after the operation and has feelings of fainting. Then it is necessary to be hospitalized in the hospital at the gynecological department and perform laparoscopy - the blood from the abdominal cavity is sucked out and the bleeding is stopped.
Very rarely is there a risk of damage to the surrounding organs near the ovaries, such as the urinary bladder, intestine, blood vessels, etc. However, we have not yet noticed this at our clinic.